BROWSE ALPHABETICALLY LEVEL:    Elementary    Advanced    Both INCLUDE TOPICS:    Basic Math    Algebra    Analysis    Biography    Calculus    Comp Sci    Discrete    Economics    Foundations    Geometry    Graph Thry    History    Number Thry    Phys Sci    Statistics    Topology    Trigonometry accumulation point – bounded accumulation point   Given a set X, an accumulation point of X is a point p (which may or may not be in X) such that every neighborhood of p contains points of X different from p. See also: limit point, perfect set. a.e.   See: almost everywhere. algebraic number   A real or complex number which is the root of a polynomial with rational coefficients. Numbers that cannot be so expressed are called transcendental numbers. The algebraic numbers are countable. algebra of functions   Given a topological space X, an algebra of functions on X is a subset A of the space of all continuous functions on X such that for all functions f and g in X we have:fg is in A,f + g is in A, and for all constants c, cf is in A whenever f and g are in A. algebra of sets   Given a set X, an algebra on X is a collection of subsets of X which is closed under finite unions and complements. Such an algebra always includes the empty set and X itself. An algebra may also be defined as a ring of sets which includes X. An algebra of sets which is closed under countable unions is called a s-algebra. almost everywhere   Given a measure m on a measure space X, a condition (e.g., continuity of functions, etc.) is said to hold almost everwhere if it holds on X – N, i.e., on the set difference of X and N, where N is a null set. This is often abbreviated by "a.e." alternating series test    ARTICLE   A test for the convergence of a series. See the article for a complete description. antitone function   A function that is order preserving and decreasing. Ascoli-Arzelŕ Theorem   If {X} is a compact Hausdorff space and F is an equicontinuous, pointwise bounded subset of the space C(X) of continuous functions on X, then F is totally bounded in the uniform metric and the closure of F in C(X) is compact. Also, if X is a s-compact, locally compact Hausdorff space and if (fn} is an equicontinuous, pointwise bounded sequence in C(X), then there exists a subsequence and an f in C(X) such that the subsequence converges to f uniformly on compact sets. axiom of choice   An axiom of set theory, particularly ZFC, which asserts that from any (infinite) family of sets a new set may be created containing exactly one element from each set in the family. This axiom has been shown to be independent of the other axioms of ZFC (ZF). It is equivalent to: 1) Zorn's Lemma; 2) the Hausdorff Maximality Theorem; 3) the well-ordering principle; and 4) the statement that the cartesian product of an infinite family of sets is non-empty. Because the axiom of choice permits non-constructive proofs, it is rejected by intuitionism, and careful mathematicians refer explicitly to its use in proofs which require it. Baire Category Theorem   If X is a complete metric space, then the intersection of a countable collection of dense open subsets of X is also dense. Equivalently, the union of a countable collection of closed, nowhere dense subsets of X is nowhere dense. Banach space   Banach-Tarski Paradox   Given two bounded subsets of 3-dimensional Euclidean space, provided each has interior points, then the first may be decomposed into finitely many pieces and translated by rigid motions into a subset congruent to the second subset. For instance, a ball of unit radius can be decomposed into finitely many pieces, and then reassembled into two balls of unit radius. This shocking result is a consequence of the axiom of choice. base   Number systems: In a place-notational number system, the number of symbols used. For example, in base two the two symbols 0 and 1 are used, and in base seven the seven symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 are used.Exponential expressions: The number or expression which is “being raised to” the power of the exponent.Topology: Given a topological space X, a base is a class B of sets such that, for every x in X and every neighborhood U of x, there is a set b in B such that x is contained in b and b is contained in U. bijection   A bijective function, i.e., a function that is both an injection and a surjection. bijective   A function is bijective if it is both injective and surjective, i.e., both “one-to-one” and “onto.” Bolzano-Weierstrass property   A topological space X is said to have the Bolzano-Weierstrass property if every infinite sequence in X has a convergent subsequence. It is a theorem that every compact space has the Bolzano-Weierstrass property. Borel measure   A measure m on a metric space X defined on a s-algebra of sets which contains the Borel sets is called a Borel measure. See also: Lebesgue measure. Borel set   If X is a topological space, then the s-algebra of sets generated by the open sets of X is called the Borel s-algebra, and its members are called Borel sets. The Borel subsets of the real line are generated by the open intervals (equivalently, by the closed intervals, half-open intervals, and rays). bound   A lower bound of any subset of a linear order (linearly ordered set) is an element which is less than or equal to every element of the subset. The greatest lower bound is the largest of its lower bounds. An upper bound of any subset of a linear order is an element which is greater than or equal to every element of the subset. The least upper bound is the smallest of the upper bounds. Cf. infimum, supremum. bounded   A set or sequence of values is called bounded if there is a value M such that the values are never bigger than M and never smaller than –M. A function is bounded if its values are bounded. A sequence of functions is pointwise bounded if at every domain element x the sequence of values of the functions at x is bounded. A subset E of a locally compact topological space is bounded if there exists a compact set C such that E is contained in C. Such a subset is called s-bounded if there exists a sequence of compact sets Ci such that E is contained in their union. See also: totally bounded. accumulation point – bounded
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