angle binary operation
A figure formed by two line segments that extend from a common point. Also refers to the measure of the angle, in degrees or radians, indicating the amount by which one of the line segments must be rotated about the common point to make it coincide with the other segment. The angle between two planes is the angle between two intersecting lines, one lying in each plane and perpendicular to the line of intersection of the planes. Angles are frequently denoted by lower-case Greek letters.
Cf. acute, obtuse, right angle.
If X is a set with a strict partial order , then a subset A of X is called an antichain if no x and y in A are related by .
A paradox arising from formal mathematical axioms. An antinomy may lead to a strict contradiction, as in the Russell Paradox, or merely offend our intuition, as in the Banach-Tarski Paradox.
A relation “~” on a set X is antisymmetric if, for all x and y in X, whenever x ~ y and y ~ x then x = y.
Cf. symmetric relation, asymmetric relation.
A function that is order preserving and decreasing.
A fear or emotional dislike of mathematics, characterized by difficulty learning or mastering mathematical techniques or concepts, poor performance on exams despite careful preparation, etc.
Graph Theory: Another name for a directed edge.
The mathematical theory of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of integers. Formally, arithmetic is usually axiomatized by the so-called Peano axioms, and the theory is then often referred to as PA (for “Peano arithmetic”).
Set Theory: For a a regular cardinal, an a-Aronszajn tree is a tree T with |T| = a, such that every chain in T is of cardinality less than a. Every Suslin tree is an Aronszajn tree. There are no Aronszajn trees of height w.
An operation “ · ” on a set A is associative if for all a, b, and c in A, (a · b) · c = a · (b · c).
Cf. commutative, distributive.
A property of numbers which states that the operations of addition and multiplication are associative.
Cf. commutative, distributive.
A relation “~” on a set X is asymmetric if, for all x and y in X, x ~ y implies that it is not the case that y ~ x.
Cf. symmetric relation, antisymmetric relation.
An isomorphism of a space to itself, that is, a bijective function on a space that preserves relationships, operations, and/or all essential properties (continuity, order, etc.).
Cf. homomorphism, group automorphism, ring automorphism, field automorphism.
The automorphisms of any object or structure can be composed to produce new automorphisms of that object. Since functional composition is associative, and since automorphisms are by their nature invertible, the automorphisms of an object or structure form a group (with the trivial automorphism serving as the identity element). This group is called the automorphism group of that object, usually denoted by Aut(X) for some object X. Automorphism groups are very useful, as they yield information about the symmetries of objects at hand.
In formal mathematics, a formula or schema of formulas stipulated as true in the theory under discussion, i.e., assumed to be true at the outset, and so not requiring proof. Axioms are the counterpart in mathematics of suppositions, assumptions, or premises in ordinary syllogistic logic.
axiom of choice
An axiom of set theory, particularly ZFC, which asserts that from any (infinite) family of sets a new set may be created containing exactly one element from each set in the family. This axiom has been shown to be independent of the other axioms of ZFC (ZF). It is equivalent to: 1) Zorn's Lemma; 2) the Hausdorff Maximality Theorem; 3) the well-ordering principle; and 4) the statement that the cartesian product of an infinite family of sets is non-empty. Because the axiom of choice permits non-constructive proofs, it is rejected by intuitionism, and careful mathematicians refer explicitly to its use in proofs which require it.
Given two bounded subsets of 3-dimensional Euclidean space, provided each has interior points, then the first may be decomposed into finitely many pieces and translated by rigid motions into a subset congruent to the second subset. For instance, a ball of unit radius can be decomposed into finitely many pieces, and then reassembled into two balls of unit radius. This shocking result is a consequence of the axiom of choice.
Number systems: In a place-notational number system, the number of symbols used. For example, in base two the two symbols 0 and 1 are used, and in base seven the seven symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 are used.
Exponential expressions: The number or expression which is “being raised to” the power of the exponent.
Topology: Given a topological space X, a base is a class B of sets such that, for every x in X and every neighborhood U of x, there is a set b in B such that x is contained in b and b is contained in U.
A bijective function, i.e., a function that is both an injection and a surjection.
A function is bijective if it is both injective and surjective, i.e., both “one-to-one” and “onto.”
A binary operation on a set X is a function whose domain is the set of ordered pairs of elements from X and whose range is X.
Examples: addition on the set of integers, function composition.