associative common logarithm
An operation “ · ” on a set A is associative if for all a, b, and c in A, (a · b) · c = a · (b · c).
Cf. commutative, distributive.
A property of numbers which states that the operations of addition and multiplication are associative.
Cf. commutative, distributive.
A relation “~” on a set X is asymmetric if, for all x and y in X, x ~ y implies that it is not the case that y ~ x.
Cf. symmetric relation, antisymmetric relation.
An isomorphism of a space to itself, that is, a bijective function on a space that preserves relationships, operations, and/or all essential properties (continuity, order, etc.).
Cf. homomorphism, group automorphism, ring automorphism, field automorphism.
The automorphisms of any object or structure can be composed to produce new automorphisms of that object. Since functional composition is associative, and since automorphisms are by their nature invertible, the automorphisms of an object or structure form a group (with the trivial automorphism serving as the identity element). This group is called the automorphism group of that object, usually denoted by Aut(X) for some object X. Automorphism groups are very useful, as they yield information about the symmetries of objects at hand.
In formal mathematics, a formula or schema of formulas stipulated as true in the theory under discussion, i.e., assumed to be true at the outset, and so not requiring proof. Axioms are the counterpart in mathematics of suppositions, assumptions, or premises in ordinary syllogistic logic.
Number systems: In a place-notational number system, the number of symbols used. For example, in base two the two symbols 0 and 1 are used, and in base seven the seven symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 are used.
Exponential expressions: The number or expression which is “being raised to” the power of the exponent.
Topology: Given a topological space X, a base is a class B of sets such that, for every x in X and every neighborhood U of x, there is a set b in B such that x is contained in b and b is contained in U.
A bijective function, i.e., a function that is both an injection and a surjection.
A function is bijective if it is both injective and surjective, i.e., both “one-to-one” and “onto.”
A binary operation on a set X is a function whose domain is the set of ordered pairs of elements from X and whose range is X.
Examples: addition on the set of integers, function composition.
A lower bound of any subset of a linear order (linearly ordered set) is an element which is less than or equal to every element of the subset. The greatest lower bound is the largest of its lower bounds. An upper bound of any subset of a linear order is an element which is greater than or equal to every element of the subset. The least upper bound is the smallest of the upper bounds.
Cf. infimum, supremum.
A set or sequence of values is called bounded if there is a value M such that the values are never bigger than M and never smaller than –M. A function is bounded if its values are bounded. A sequence of functions is pointwise bounded if at every domain element x the sequence of values of the functions at x is bounded. A subset E of a locally compact topological space is bounded if there exists a compact set C such that E is contained in C. Such a subset is called s-bounded if there exists a sequence of compact sets Ci such that E is contained in their union. See also: totally bounded.
The Cartesian product R2, represented graphically by two real number lines at right angles to one another, with the point (0,0) at the intersection.
Used for graphing functions from the set of real numbers to itself. The quadrants, numbered I - IV as shown, indicate the regions of the plane where the x and y axes are positive and negative. Compare: Argand plane.
In a plane, the locus of all points equidistant from a given point, called the center. The general equation for a circle in the Cartesian plane is given by (x - h) 2 + (y - k) 2 = r 2, where r is the radius of the circle (distance from the center to the locus of points), and (h, k) are the coordinates of the center.
The interior of a circle is referred to as an open disk.
A circle is also a conic section; a special case of an ellipse in which the foci coincide.
Geometry: The distance around a circle in the plane, or around a great circle of a sphere.
Graph Theory: The circumference of a graph G is defined as the length of the longest cycle of G. The circumference is ususally denoted by c(G), and is undefined if G has no cycles.
General: A set is closed under an operation if applying the operation to its elements returns only elements in the set. For example, the set of integers is closed under addition, since adding two integers always gives another integer, but it is not closed under division, since dividing two integers may result in a non-integer.
Geometry: A plane figure is closed if it consists of lines and/or curves that entirely enclose an area. Similarly, a figure in 3-dimensional space is called closed if it entirely encloses a volume.
See the following listings for other uses of the word “closed” in mathematics.
Topology: A set is topologically closed if it is not open.
An interval of the real number line (or any other totally ordered set) which includes its endpoints. An interval containing only one of its endpoints is called half-open.
Cf. open interval.
Topology: The closure of a subset E of a topological space is the smallest closed set containing E. It may also be expressed as the union of E with its accumulation points. If E is closed, then it is equal to its closure.
Algebra: An algebraic closure of a field F is a field G containing F such that every polynomial with coefficients from F has a root in G.
A subselection of a set of r elements from a set of n elements. The number of such combinations, i.e., the number of ways in which r elements may be chosen from a set of n elements, is given by the formula
This operation is also sometimes denoted by nC r, and is read “n choose r.”
Cf. permutation, factorial.
A logarithm with base 10.