BROWSE ALPHABETICALLY LEVEL:    Elementary    Advanced    Both INCLUDE TOPICS:    Basic Math    Algebra    Analysis    Biography    Calculus    Comp Sci    Discrete    Economics    Foundations    Geometry    Graph Thry    History    Number Thry    Phys Sci    Statistics    Topology    Trigonometry convex – divide convex   Naively, a region of space is convex if the line segement joining any two points of the region lies wholly within it. Thus, a polygon is convex if every line segment joining any two points on its sides lies entirely within the polygon. (This is equivalent to the condition that all its interior angles be less than 180°.)More generally, a region in a real vector space is convex if whenever two points x and y are in the region then so is any point tx + (1 - t)y, where t lies in the interval [0, 1]. See the immediately following entries for additional uses of the descriptor “convex.”Cf. concave. convex function   A function is convex if the chord joining any two points of its graph lies entirely above the graph.Cf. concave function. countable   A set is countable if it is finite, or if it is infinite and bijective to the set of natural numbers (finite ordinals), i.e., if there exists a complete one-to-one mapping of the set in question onto the set N. Sets that are both countable and infinite are sometimes called denumerable. Georg Cantor proved that sets may be uncountably infinite, for example the set of real numbers. Related MiniText: Infinity -- You Can't Get There From Here... countably infinite   See countable cube   A regular polyhedron having six square faces. More generally, an n-dimensional cube in the first quadrant of a Euclidean space with one vertex at the origin is given by the collection of all n-tuples of the form (e1,e2, ... , en), with each ei an element of the set {0,1}.Cf. platonic solid. Related article: Platonic Solids Dandelin’s Spheres    ARTICLE   A proof by the 17th century French mathematician Germinal Dandelin of the equivalence of the plane-geometry and conic-section definitions of the ellipse, parabola, and hyperbola. See the article for a full exposition. degenerate conic   A conic section in which the intersecting plane passes through the vertex. Related article: Conics degree   Geometry: A unit of measure of angles, denoted by “ ° ”. A complete circle contains 360°, a straight line 180°, and a right angle 90°. Compare radians.Algebra: The degree of a polynomial is the highest sum of exponents appearing in any term with a non-zero coefficient.Graph Theory: The degree of a vertex is the number of edges incident on that vertex, counting loops twice. The degree of an edge is an unordered pair of the degrees of its two ends. dense   Given a space X and a subset A of X, we say that A is dense in X if the intersection of every open set of X with A is non-empty. E.g., the rational numbers are dense in the real numbers. denumerable   A set is denumerable if it is infinite and countable. derived set   Given a set X, the derived set of X is the set of accumulation points of X. The second derived set is the derived set of the derived set, and so on.Cf. Cantor-Bendixson Theorem. diameter   Geometry: A diameter of a circle (or sphere) is a line containing the center and with endpoints on the perimeter (resp. surface).Analysis: Given a set X in a metric space, the diameter of X is the supremum of the distances between all pairs of points of X.Graph Theory: The diameter of a given graph G is the maximum, over all pairs of vertices u, v of G that are in the same connected component of G, of the distance between u and v. In other words, it is the greatest distance between two vertices on the graph. difference   The difference of two numbers m and n, with n > m, is the number which when added to m yields n. For example, the difference of 3 and 5 is 2.Set Theory: The difference of two sets A and B, denoted either as AB or as A - B, is the set of elements of A that are not in B. discrete   General: So-called “Discrete Mathematics” consists of those branches of mathematics which are concerned with the relations among fixed rather than continuously varying quantities, e.g., combinatorics and probability.Topology: A topology on a set X is discrete if every subset of X is open, or equivalently if every one-point set of X is open. disjoint   Two sets are disjoint if they have empty intersection. disjoint union   A union of sets which are disjoint. disk   A set of points consisting of a circle together with its interior points. The set consisting only of the interior points of a circle is called an open disk.Cf. neighborhood. distance   The distance between two points in a space is given by the length of the geodesic joining those two points. In Euclidean space, the geodesic is given by a straight line, and the distance between two points is the length of this line. The distance between two points a and b on a real number line is the absolute value of their difference, i.e., d(a, b) = |a - b|. In two (or more) dimensions, the distance is given by the (generalized) Pythagorean theorem, i.e., in a Cartesian coordinate system of n dimensions, where a = (a1, ... ,an) and b = (b1, ... ,bn), the distance d(a, b) is given byThe concept of distance may be generalized to more abstract spaces – such a distance concept is referred to as a metric.Graph Theory: The length of the shortest path between two vertices of a graph. If there is no path between two vertices, their distance is defined to be infinite. The distance between two vertices v and u is denoted by d(v, u). In a connected graph, distance is a metric. distributive   distributive property   An algebraic property of numbers which states that for all numbers a, b, and c, a(b + c) = ab + ac. Cf. commutative, associative. divide   To divide a number a by another number b is to find a third number c such that the product of b and c is a, that is, b × c = a. The number a is called the dividend, the number b is called the divisor, and the number c is called the quotient. The operation of dividing may be denoted by a horizontal or diagonal slash separating the dividend and divisor (with the dividend on top), or by a horizontal dash with a dot above and below it placed between the dividend and divisor.In the case of whole numbers a and b there may not be a whole number quotient; however, there are always unique whole numbers q and r such that a = b × q + r, with r < b. In this case q is called the quotient and r is called the remainder. If in a particular case r = 0, we say that b divides a, and this is often denoted by b|a. convex – divide
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