Given a space X and a subset A of X, we say that A is dense in X if the intersection of every open set of X with A is non-empty. E.g., the rational numbers are dense in the real numbers.
dense linear order
A set X is said to be a dense linear order if it is a linear order under a relation “ < ” and such that for all distinct x and z with x < z, there is a y in X such that x < y and y < z. The canonical example of a dense linear order is the set Q of rational numbers.
A set is denumerable if it is infinite and countable.
For a function f of a single real variable x, the derivative is defined as the limit of the difference quotient
provided this limit exists. In practice, the derivative is interpreted as the instantaneous rate of change of the function at x. Graphically, the derivative returns the slope of the tangent at x.
Cf. differentiation rules.
Given a set X, the derived set of X is the set of accumulation points of X. The second derived set is the derived set of the derived set, and so on.
Cf. Cantor-Bendixson Theorem.
Geometry: A diameter of a circle (or sphere) is a line containing the center and with endpoints on the perimeter (resp. surface).
Analysis: Given a set X in a metric space, the diameter of X is the supremum of the distances between all pairs of points of X.
Graph Theory: The diameter of a given graph G is the maximum, over all pairs of vertices u, v of G that are in the same connected component of G, of the distance between u and v. In other words, it is the greatest distance between two vertices on the graph.
A function is differentiable at a point of its domain if its derivative exists at that point. A function is said to be (simply) differentiable if its derivative exists at all points of its domain.
A rule permitting easy differentiation of functions having certain forms. See the article for a complete description.
General: So-called “Discrete Mathematics” consists of those branches of mathematics which are concerned with the relations among fixed rather than continuously varying quantities, e.g., combinatorics and probability.
Topology: A topology on a set X is discrete if every subset of X is open, or equivalently if every one-point set of X is open.
Two sets are disjoint if they have empty intersection.
A union of sets which are disjoint.
A set of points consisting of a circle together with its interior points. The set consisting only of the interior points of a circle is called an open disk.
The distance between two points in a space is given by the length of the geodesic joining those two points. In Euclidean space, the geodesic is given by a straight line, and the distance between two points is the length of this line. The distance between two points a and b on a real number line is the absolute value of their difference, i.e., d(a, b) = |a - b|. In two (or more) dimensions, the distance is given by the (generalized) Pythagorean theorem, i.e., in a Cartesian coordinate system of n dimensions, where a = (a1, ... ,an) and b = (b1, ... ,bn), the distance d(a, b) is given by
The concept of distance may be generalized to more abstract spaces – such a distance concept is referred to as a metric.
Graph Theory: The length of the shortest path between two vertices of a graph. If there is no path between two vertices, their distance is defined to be infinite. The distance between two vertices v and u is denoted by d(v, u). In a connected graph, distance is a metric.
A lattice is called distributive if for all elements x, y, and z of the lattice we have x (y z) = (x y) (x z) and x (y z) = (x y) (x z).
General: A universe of discourse, that is, the class of objects under consideration. Functions and relations: The domain of a function (relation) is the set of elements which the function (relation) maps to its range set.
See scalar product.
See Euler number.
The unique set having no elements, generally denoted by a circle with a forward slash through it, or by an empty pair of braces.
See Liar Paradox.
A morphism f from X to Y is called an epimorphism when it is surjective, that is, when to each element y of Y there corresponds an x in X such that f(x) = y.
Let C[a,b] denote the space of all continuous functions on the real interval [a,b]. A subset S of C[0,1] is called equicontinuous at x in [a,b] if for any e greater than zero there is some d greater than zero such that for every function f in S we have: