BROWSE ALPHABETICALLY LEVEL:    Elementary    Advanced    Both INCLUDE TOPICS:    Basic Math    Algebra    Analysis    Biography    Calculus    Comp Sci    Discrete    Economics    Foundations    Geometry    Graph Thry    History    Number Thry    Phys Sci    Statistics    Topology    Trigonometry edge – fallacy edge   General: A line formed by the intersection of two planes. In a 3-dimensional figure (such as a polyhedron), the line or curve where two faces or surfaces meet.Graph Theory: One of two kinds of entities in a graph. Restricted to being incident on exactly two vertices. edge set   The set of edges of some graph. For a graph G, the edge set of G is denoted by E(G), or, if there is no ambiguity as to the graph in question, simply by E. ellipse   The locus of points in the plane, the sum of whose distances from two fixed points, called the foci, remains constant.Like the hyperbola and parabola, the ellipse is a conic section. Related article: Conics empty set   The unique set having no elements, generally denoted by a circle with a forward slash through it, or by an empty pair of braces. epimorphism   A morphism f from X to Y is called an epimorphism when it is surjective, that is, when to each element y of Y there corresponds an x in X such that f(x) = y.Cf. monomorphism. equicontinuous   Let C[a,b] denote the space of all continuous functions on the real interval [a,b]. A subset S of C[0,1] is called equicontinuous at x in [a,b] if for any e greater than zero there is some d greater than zero such that for every function f in S we have: equilateral triangle   A triangle with equal sides and equal angles. equipotent   Two sets are equipotent if there exists a function between them that is bijective, that is, which is “one-to-one” and “onto.”Cf. cardinal. Euclidean geometry   The theory of geometry arising from the five postulates (axioms) of Euclid: That any two points determine a line; That any line may be extended indefinitely; That a circle may be drawn with any center and radius; That all right angles are equal to one another; That, if a straight line falling on two straight lines makes the interior angles on the same side less than two right angles, the two straight lines, if produced indefinitely, meet on that side on which the angles are less than two right angles. Euclidean geometry is characterized by the 5th postulate, also called the “parallel’s postulate,” which may be restated as; given a line and a point not on the line, exactly one line may be drawn through the given point parallel to the given line. Theories of geometry which reject the 5th postulate form the subject of non-Euclidean geometry. Euclid recorded his theory of geometry in his 13-book opus titled Elements, c. 300 b.c., and his theory was considered the only “true” theory of geometry until the 18th century, when non-Euclidean geometry was discovered independently by Nikolai Lobachevsky, Janos Bolyai, and Karl Friedrich Gauss. Euclid’s axioms were found to be deficient in the 19th century, and Euclidean geometry was re-axiomatized by David Hilbert with the addition of a between-ness axiom, and the relegation of the concepts of point and line, which Euclid had defined, to the status of undefined terms. Euclidean space   A space satisfying the axioms of Euclidean geometry. Specifically, a space in which the parallel postulate holds; equivalently, a space in which the distance between points is given by a straight line. Euler number   The transcendental number e, approximately 2.71828.... It may be defined as the limit or as the infinite sum The function ex is called the exponential function, and has the property that it is its own derivative. Euler Polyhedron Formula   V - E + F = 2, where V is the number of vertices, E is the number of edges, and F is the number of faces of a polyhedron or a planar graph. even function   A real-valued function y = f(x) is even if f(x) = f(–x) for all x in the domain of f. The graph of an even function in the Cartesian plane is symmetric with respect to the y-axis. Cf. odd function. exp   exponent   Also called index, a number or expression applying to another number or expression, called the base, and indicating that the base is to be “raised to the power of” the exponent. For integers, this corresponds to the operation of repeated self-multiplication the number of times specified by the exponent.The exponent is written to the right of, and superscripted to, the base.Cf. rational exponent, laws of exponents. exponential function   The function ex. We say that an expression is expontiated when it is used as an exponent on e.More generally, any function which operates on its argument by placing it as an exponent may be called an exponential function. Example: f(x) = 2x.Cf. Euler number. extended real numbers   The set of real numbers together with a “point(s) at infinity.” If both a positive and a negative infinity are added, then the resulting space is order equivalent and topologically equivalent (i.e., homeomorphic) to the unit interval [0, 1]. If only a single point at infinity is added, the resulting space is topologically equivalent to the unit circle. factor   The factors of a natural number n are those whole numbers which divide it evenly. Since every number is divisible by itself and 1, neither 1 nor n is considered a proper factor of n.More generally, if an expression can be written as a product of other expressions, then those other expressions are its factors. For instance, a polynomial with rational coefficients may always be factored into a product of first and/or second degree polynomial factors.A number (or other expression) with no proper factors is called prime.Graph Theory: A spanning subgraph of a given graph having at least one edge. In many contexts, it is interesting to determine whether some graph G can be decomposed into the edge-disjoint union of factors with some prescribed property. Such a decomposition is called a factorization of G. Often, the property in question is regularity of degree k. In this case, the factors are called k-factors, and the factorization a k-factorization. If G has a k-factorization, it is called k-factorable. factorial   An operation on natural numbers, denoted n! and given by n! = 1 × 2 × 3 × ... × n. Thus 3! = 1 × 2 × 3 = 6, and 4! = 24. By convention, 0! = 1 and 1! = 1. factorization   The process of factoring, that is, of finding proper factors. fallacy    ARTICLE   An unjustified step in logic, or incorrect form of reasoning, leading to an invalid conclusion. See the article for a complete description. edge – fallacy
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