BROWSE ALPHABETICALLY LEVEL:    Elementary    Advanced    Both INCLUDE TOPICS:    Basic Math    Algebra    Analysis    Biography    Calculus    Comp Sci    Discrete    Economics    Foundations    Geometry    Graph Thry    History    Number Thry    Phys Sci    Statistics    Topology    Trigonometry Euler number – flat pair Euler number   The transcendental number e, approximately 2.71828.... It may be defined as the limit or as the infinite sum The function ex is called the exponential function, and has the property that it is its own derivative. Euler phi function   Given a natural number n, this function returns the number of integers between 1 and n which are relatively prime to n. even function   A real-valued function y = f(x) is even if f(x) = f(–x) for all x in the domain of f. The graph of an even function in the Cartesian plane is symmetric with respect to the y-axis. Cf. odd function. existential quantifier   exp   exponent   Also called index, a number or expression applying to another number or expression, called the base, and indicating that the base is to be “raised to the power of” the exponent. For integers, this corresponds to the operation of repeated self-multiplication the number of times specified by the exponent.The exponent is written to the right of, and superscripted to, the base.Cf. rational exponent, laws of exponents. exponential function   The function ex. We say that an expression is expontiated when it is used as an exponent on e.More generally, any function which operates on its argument by placing it as an exponent may be called an exponential function. Example: f(x) = 2x.Cf. Euler number. extended real numbers   The set of real numbers together with a “point(s) at infinity.” If both a positive and a negative infinity are added, then the resulting space is order equivalent and topologically equivalent (i.e., homeomorphic) to the unit interval [0, 1]. If only a single point at infinity is added, the resulting space is topologically equivalent to the unit circle. factor   The factors of a natural number n are those whole numbers which divide it evenly. Since every number is divisible by itself and 1, neither 1 nor n is considered a proper factor of n.More generally, if an expression can be written as a product of other expressions, then those other expressions are its factors. For instance, a polynomial with rational coefficients may always be factored into a product of first and/or second degree polynomial factors.A number (or other expression) with no proper factors is called prime.Graph Theory: A spanning subgraph of a given graph having at least one edge. In many contexts, it is interesting to determine whether some graph G can be decomposed into the edge-disjoint union of factors with some prescribed property. Such a decomposition is called a factorization of G. Often, the property in question is regularity of degree k. In this case, the factors are called k-factors, and the factorization a k-factorization. If G has a k-factorization, it is called k-factorable. factorial   An operation on natural numbers, denoted n! and given by n! = 1 × 2 × 3 × ... × n. Thus 3! = 1 × 2 × 3 = 6, and 4! = 24. By convention, 0! = 1 and 1! = 1. factorization   The process of factoring, that is, of finding proper factors. fallacy    ARTICLE   An unjustified step in logic, or incorrect form of reasoning, leading to an invalid conclusion. See the article for a complete description. Fermat’s Last Theorem   The Diophantine equation x n + y n = z n has no non-trivial solutions in integers x, y, and z for any n greater than 2. (There are infinitely many solutions in integers for n = 2, and these are called the Pythagorean triples.) Fermat penned this theorem in the margin of his copy of the Arithmetica of Diophantus of Alexandria, and added, “I have discovered a remarkable proof of this theorem, which unfortunately this margin is too small to contain.” He died without ever writing down the proof, and the theorem remained unproved for 300 years, until Andrew Wiles presented a proof at a Cambridge lecture in 1992. Fermat’s Little Theorem   For any integer n and prime number p that does not divide n, n p - 1 is congruent to 1 modulo p.Cf. Euler phi function. Fermat test   A test for primality based on the converse of Fermat's little theorem: the Fermat test for n base b is that the congruence bp-1 1 modulo n should hold. For prime n, this is always provided that b and n are coprime; however there are also some composite numbers which will pass the test. For example, 341 = 11 × 31 is composite, yet 2340 1 modulo 341, so we call 2 a Fermat pseudoprime to the base 2. Even worse, Carmichael numbers are pseudoprimes for the Fermat test and any base. Fortunately, pseudoprimes and Carmichael numbers are rare compared to primes. Such tests are thus probabilistic, in that numbers passing the test are likely but not certain to be prime. Fibonacci sequence    ARTICLE   The sequence discovered by the medieval mathematician Fibonacci, and described in his book Liber Abaci. See the article for a complete description. figure   General: A drawing, picture, or illustration, usually accompanying a text description. Also synonymous with digit or numeral.Geometry: A graphical (visual) representation of points, lines, curves, surfaces, solids, or regions. The word “figure” may also be used to refer to the abstract object or set of points thus represented.Cf. plane figure. filter   If X is a set (or class) and F is a family of subsets of X, then F is called a filter providedF is closed under intersections, i.e., for any sets A, B in F their intersection is also in F, andF is closed under supersets (upwardly closed), i.e., if A is any set in F and B is any set in X containing A, then B is in F. If X and F are as above, and if in addition for every subset Y of X either Y or its complement is in F, then F is called an ultrafilter (or maximal filter). Equivalently, an ultrafilter is a filter that is not the proper subset of any filter. A free ultrafilter is an ultrafilter which contains the complement of every finite set. If A is any subset of X, then the collection of supersets of A together with all finite intersections of supersets of A is called the filter generated by A. More generally, if U is any family of subsets of X that is closed unter finite intersections, then the family F of subsets which includes precisely U and all of the intersections of supersets of members of U is the filter generated by U, and U is called its filter base. If a filter F is generated by a singleton set, then it is called a principal filter. finite intersection property   A collection of sets has the finite intersection property if every finite subcollection has non-empty intersection. finite set   A set X is finite if there is a natural number n (possibly 0) such that X can be said to have exactly n elements. More formally, a set is finite if it is not bijective with any proper subset of itself. flat pair   A pair of elements {a,b} with no order defined on the elements. Sometimes also called an unordered pair.Cf. ordered pair. Euler number – flat pair
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