BROWSE ALPHABETICALLY LEVEL:    Elementary    Advanced    Both INCLUDE TOPICS:    Basic Math    Algebra    Analysis    Biography    Calculus    Comp Sci    Discrete    Economics    Foundations    Geometry    Graph Thry    History    Number Thry    Phys Sci    Statistics    Topology    Trigonometry greatest common divisor – integer greatest common divisor   The greatest common divisor of two natural numbers a and b is the largest natural number c such that c divides a and c divides b. greatest lower bound   A lower bound which is greater than or equal to every other lower bound.Cf. Least upper bound. Greek    ARTICLE   Letters of the Greek alphabet are commonly used in mathematics. See the article for a full description. Hempel’s Ravens Paradox    ARTICLE   A paradox of inductive logic described by the philosopher C.G. Hempel. See the article for a complete exposition. homomorphism   A function f from one algebra to another is called a homomorphism if it preserves operations on elements, that is, if for any a, b in the domain, f(ab) = f(a)f(b).Cf. group homomorphism, ring homomorphism. hyperset   A set which is not well-founded, i.e., which involves self-membership or, equivalently, an infinite descending membership chain. Example: the Quine atom x = {x}. hypotenuse   On a right triangle, the side opposite the right angle. i   See imaginary number. icosahedron   A polyhedron having twenty faces.The faces of a regular icosahedron are congruent, equilateral triangles.Cf. Platonic solid. identity function   A function that maps each domain element to itself. Also called the identity map. identity map   image   Given a function f with domain X, the image under f of a subset A of X, denoted f(A), is the subset of the range consisting of those elements to which elements of A are mapped by f. imaginary number   By definition, the square root of –1, i.e., i 2 = –1.Cf. complex number. inaccessible cardinal   A cardinal k is called weakly inaccessible if and only if it is a regular limit cardinal. A cardinal k is called strongly inaccessible if and only if k > w and for every cardinal l less than k, 2l is less than k. If GCH is assumed, then weakly inaccessibles are strongly inaccessible. Ordinary set theory (ZFC) cannot prove that weakly inaccessibles exist.Cf. König’s Lemma. independent axiom   In a formal mathematical theory, a formula or statement in the theory is said to be independent if it cannot be derived (proved, deduced) from the other axioms of the theory. inf   Abbreviation of infimum. infimum   The infimum of any subset of a linear order (linearly ordered set) is the greatest lower bound of the subset. In particular, the infimum of any set of numbers is the largest number in the set which is less than or equal to every other number in the set. In a complete linear order the infimum of any bounded set always exists.Cf. supremum, least upper bound axiom. infinity   Infinity is a concept understood in different ways depending upon the context in which the word is used. In particular, infinity is not a number in the ordinary sense. The so-called extended real numbers include either a positive or a negative infinity (but not both). When this is done, the algebraic forms "infinity plus negative infinity", "infinity times zero", and "infinity divided by infinity" are undefined. Infinite ordinals may be countable or uncountable. Whether actually infinite totalities may be admitted, used, or analyzed remains a contentious issue in the philosophy of mathematics. See the minitext for a thorough treatment. Related MiniText: Infinity -- You Can't Get There From Here... injection   An injective function, i.e., a function that is “one-to-one.” Equivalently, a function that maps exactly one element of its domain to each element of its range.Cf. surjection, bijection. injective   A function is injective, also called “one-to-one,” if to each element of the range at most one element of the domain is mapped by the function.Cf. surjective, bijective. integer   An element of the set Z consisting of the natural numbers, zero, and the additive inverses (negatives) of the natural numbers. I.e., Z = { ... -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, ... }. The use of Z to denote the set of integers stems from the German word zahlen, which means “to count.”Cf. natural number. Related MiniText: Number -- What Is How Many? greatest common divisor – integer
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