Abbreviation of infimum.
The infimum of any subset of a linear order (linearly ordered set) is the greatest lower bound of the subset. In particular, the infimum of any set of numbers is the largest number in the set which is less than or equal to every other number in the set. In a complete linear order the infimum of any bounded set always exists.
Cf. supremum, least upper bound axiom.
An injective function, i.e., a function that is “one-to-one.” Equivalently, a function that maps exactly one element of its domain to each element of its range.
Cf. surjection, bijection.
A function is injective, also called “one-to-one,” if to each element of the range at most one element of the domain is mapped by the function.
Cf. surjective, bijective.
An antiderivative of a function. That is, if f(x) is a real-valued function, an antiderivative F(x) of f(x) has the property that the derivative of F with respect to x is f.
The definite integral (called the Riemann integral) of a real-valued function f(x) from x = a to x = b is the limit of the Riemann sum:
assuming this limit exists, where ci is in the i th subinterval of the partition of (a, b), and where a is the lower limit, and b is the upper limit, of the integral.
Cf. fundamental theorem of calculus, Lebesgue integral.
The interior of a subset E of a topological space is the largest open set contained in E. It may also be expressed as the intersection of E with the closure of its complement. If E is open, then it is equal to its interior. If E contains no open sets we say that it has empty interior, and this equivalent to saying that E is nowhere dense.
The set of all real numbers lying between two given real numbers a and b. If both a and b are included in the set it is called a closed interval. If neither a nor b is included it is called an open interval. If only one of a or b is included the interval is called half-open (equivalently, half-closed). Intervals may be denoted using either interval notation or set notation, as follows:
Although intervals are most commonly intervals on the real line, the definition carries over without modification to any totally ordered set.
An intersection graph of a finite family of intervals on the real line.
Given a function f and a subset Y of the range of f, the inverse image (under f) of Y is the set of all x such that f(x) is in Y.
A morphism that is both injective and surjective, that is, both “one-to-one” and “onto.” An isomorphism from a structure to itself is called an automorphism.
A function that is order preserving and increasing.
Jordan Decomposition Theorem
If m is a signed measure, there exist unique positive measures m+ and m– such that m = m+ – m–, with m+ and m– mutually singular. This is called the Jordan decomposition of m, and the measures m+ and m– are called the positive and negative variations of m. The total variation of m is defined to be the sum of the positive and negative variations of m.
least upper bound
An upper bound which is less than or equal to every other upper bound.
Cf. greatest lower bound.
least upper bound axiom
“Any subset of the real numbers which has an upper bound has a least upper bound.” This axiom, together with the field axioms, completely characterizes the set of real numbers.
The unique measure m on the real line, generated by the outer measure whose value on intervals is the length of the intervals, is called Lebesgue measure.
Given a sequence of points ai , i = 1, 2, 3, ... , a point L is called a limit point of the sequence if every neighborhood of L contains all but finitely many of the ai .
If X is a metric space, then L is a limit point of X if a sequence from X may be chosen so that L is the limit point of that sequence. Limit points are not in general unique.
See also: accumulation point, perfect set.
A topological space is locally compact if every point of the space has a neighborhood whose closure is compact.
A measurable function on a finite-dimensional real space with range in the complex numbers is said to be locally integrable if for all compact sets K we have:
The space of all such functions is denoted L1LOC.
Cf. Lebesgue integral.
Given measure spaces (X, M, m) and (Y, N, n), a function f from X to Y is said to be measurable if the inverse image of every measurable set in Y is measurable in X.
A set X together with a s-algebra of sets M defined on it is called a measurable space, usually denoted (X, M). The elements of M are called measurable sets.
Given a set X and a s-algebra of sets M defined on X, a measure on X is a positive real-valued function m whose domain is M, and which satisfies:
If the measure of every set in M is finite, then m is called a finite measure. If X can be expressed as a union of sets in M all of whose measures are finite, then m is called a s-finite measure. If for every set E in the domain of m whose measure is infinite there is a subset F of E which has finite measure, then m is called a semi-finite measure. If for any set E in M which has zero measure all the subsets of E are also in M (and therefore have zero measure), then m is called a complete measure.
- the measure of the empty set is zero.
- (Countable additivity) For any countable, disjoint sequence of sets in the domain of m, the measure of the union of the sequence is equal to the sum of the measures of the sets in the sequence.
Cf. measure space, signed measure, outer measure, Lebesgue measure, Borel measure.