indeterminate form line
A limit of an expression is said to be indeterminate, or in indeterminate form, if when evaluated directly it resolves to one of the forms
Such limits may often be evaluated by manipulating them algebraically before applying the limit, or, in the case of the first two indeterminate forms shown, by applying L'Hospital's Rule.
Abbreviation of infimum.
An injective function, i.e., a function that is “one-to-one.” Equivalently, a function that maps exactly one element of its domain to each element of its range.
Cf. surjection, bijection.
A function is injective, also called “one-to-one,” if to each element of the range at most one element of the domain is mapped by the function.
Cf. surjective, bijective.
An antiderivative of a function. That is, if f(x) is a real-valued function, an antiderivative F(x) of f(x) has the property that the derivative of F with respect to x is f.
The definite integral (called the Riemann integral) of a real-valued function f(x) from x = a to x = b is the limit of the Riemann sum:
assuming this limit exists, where ci is in the i th subinterval of the partition of (a, b), and where a is the lower limit, and b is the upper limit, of the integral.
Cf. fundamental theorem of calculus, Lebesgue integral.
A test for the convergence of a series. See the related article for a complete description.
Obtaining an integral of a function.
See the article for a complete list of common integration formulas.
The set of all real numbers lying between two given real numbers a and b. If both a and b are included in the set it is called a closed interval. If neither a nor b is included it is called an open interval. If only one of a or b is included the interval is called half-open (equivalently, half-closed). Intervals may be denoted using either interval notation or set notation, as follows:
Although intervals are most commonly intervals on the real line, the definition carries over without modification to any totally ordered set.
If f is an injective (i.e., one-to-one) function, then f is said to be invertible, and its inverse is the function g satisfying g(f(x)) = f(g(x)) = x for every x in the domain of f.
Given a function f and a subset Y of the range of f, the inverse image (under f) of Y is the set of all x such that f(x) is in Y.
The laws of planetary motion discovered by Johannes Kepler. See the article for an exposition.
laws of exponents
The following rules govern the behavior of exponents:
Additionally, x0 = 1 for all x except 0, and 00 = 0 or is left undefined (i.e., it is an indeterminate form).
Cf. rational exponent.
laws of logarithms
The following rules governing the behavior of logarithms are easily derived, and very useful in calculations:
Students often confuse these rules, so it is worth memorizing them as “the sum of the logs is the log of the product – and not the product of the logs,” etc.
- log A + log B = log (A×B)
- log A – log B = log (A/B)
- log Ap = p × log A
least upper bound
An upper bound which is less than or equal to every other upper bound.
Cf. greatest lower bound.
least upper bound axiom
“Any subset of the real numbers which has an upper bound has a least upper bound.” This axiom, together with the field axioms, completely characterizes the set of real numbers.
If a limit is in one of the indeterminate forms “infinity over infinity” or ”zero over zero,” then we have
That is, the limit is the same after taking the derivatives of both the numerator and denominator. L’Hospital’s Rule may be applied as many times as needed. Students often misapply the Rule by using it when the limit is not in one of the above indeterminate forms. This often results in an incorrect evaluation of the limit.
The concept of a limit is central to our modern understanding of the differential and integral calculus. Naively, an expression involving a variable limits to some value L if it becomes arbitrarily close to L for appropriate choices of the variable. See the article for a full exposition.
limit comparison test
A test for the convergence of a series. Refer to the related article for a complete description.
Given a sequence of points ai , i = 1, 2, 3, ... , a point L is called a limit point of the sequence if every neighborhood of L contains all but finitely many of the ai .
If X is a metric space, then L is a limit point of X if a sequence from X may be chosen so that L is the limit point of that sequence. Limit points are not in general unique.
See also: accumulation point, perfect set.
Naively, “line” is a primitive concept, generally connoting a straight path through space. In mathematics this notion is abstracted formally in different ways depending on the type of mathematics under consideration.
Geometry: Euclid defined the term “line” as a point extended indefinitely in space. However, in modern Euclidean geometry, “line” is a primitive term, left purposely undefined, whose meaning is informed purely by the axioms in which the term appears.
Analytic geometry: Any set of ordered pairs (x, y) of all the points in the Cartesian plane satisfying an equation of the form ax + by + c = 0, where a, b, and c are real numbers. (There are three common and useful forms of this equation; see the entry for linear function.) This definition of the line may be generalized to a Euclidean space of n dimensions to include any set of ordered n-tuples (x1, x2, ..., xn) satisfying a1x1 + a2x2 + ... + anxn + c = 0. In polar coordinates a line is any set of all the ordered pairs (r, q) satisfying an equation of the form r = p sec (q - a), where p is the perpendicular distance from the pole to the line, and a is the angle of inclination of the line to the polar axis.