integral limit comparison test
An antiderivative of a function. That is, if f(x) is a real-valued function, an antiderivative F(x) of f(x) has the property that the derivative of F with respect to x is f.
The definite integral (called the Riemann integral) of a real-valued function f(x) from x = a to x = b is the limit of the Riemann sum:
assuming this limit exists, where ci is in the i th subinterval of the partition of (a, b), and where a is the lower limit, and b is the upper limit, of the integral.
Cf. fundamental theorem of calculus, Lebesgue integral.
A test for the convergence of a series. See the related article for a complete description.
Obtaining an integral of a function.
See the article for a complete list of common integration formulas.
The interior of a subset E of a topological space is the largest open set contained in E. It may also be expressed as the intersection of E with the closure of its complement. If E is open, then it is equal to its interior. If E contains no open sets we say that it has empty interior, and this equivalent to saying that E is nowhere dense.
The set of all real numbers lying between two given real numbers a and b. If both a and b are included in the set it is called a closed interval. If neither a nor b is included it is called an open interval. If only one of a or b is included the interval is called half-open (equivalently, half-closed). Intervals may be denoted using either interval notation or set notation, as follows:
Although intervals are most commonly intervals on the real line, the definition carries over without modification to any totally ordered set.
An intersection graph of a finite family of intervals on the real line.
If f is an injective (i.e., one-to-one) function, then f is said to be invertible, and its inverse is the function g satisfying g(f(x)) = f(g(x)) = x for every x in the domain of f.
Given a function f and a subset Y of the range of f, the inverse image (under f) of Y is the set of all x such that f(x) is in Y.
A morphism that is both injective and surjective, that is, both “one-to-one” and “onto.” An isomorphism from a structure to itself is called an automorphism.
A function that is order preserving and increasing.
Jordan Decomposition Theorem
If m is a signed measure, there exist unique positive measures m+ and m– such that m = m+ – m–, with m+ and m– mutually singular. This is called the Jordan decomposition of m, and the measures m+ and m– are called the positive and negative variations of m. The total variation of m is defined to be the sum of the positive and negative variations of m.
The laws of planetary motion discovered by Johannes Kepler. See the article for an exposition.
laws of exponents
The following rules govern the behavior of exponents:
Additionally, x0 = 1 for all x except 0, and 00 = 0 or is left undefined (i.e., it is an indeterminate form).
Cf. rational exponent.
laws of logarithms
The following rules governing the behavior of logarithms are easily derived, and very useful in calculations:
Students often confuse these rules, so it is worth memorizing them as “the sum of the logs is the log of the product – and not the product of the logs,” etc.
- log A + log B = log (A×B)
- log A – log B = log (A/B)
- log Ap = p × log A
least upper bound
An upper bound which is less than or equal to every other upper bound.
Cf. greatest lower bound.
least upper bound axiom
“Any subset of the real numbers which has an upper bound has a least upper bound.” This axiom, together with the field axioms, completely characterizes the set of real numbers.
The unique measure m on the real line, generated by the outer measure whose value on intervals is the length of the intervals, is called Lebesgue measure.
If a limit is in one of the indeterminate forms “infinity over infinity” or ”zero over zero,” then we have
That is, the limit is the same after taking the derivatives of both the numerator and denominator. L’Hospital’s Rule may be applied as many times as needed. Students often misapply the Rule by using it when the limit is not in one of the above indeterminate forms. This often results in an incorrect evaluation of the limit.
The concept of a limit is central to our modern understanding of the differential and integral calculus. Naively, an expression involving a variable limits to some value L if it becomes arbitrarily close to L for appropriate choices of the variable. See the article for a full exposition.
limit comparison test
A test for the convergence of a series. Refer to the related article for a complete description.