BROWSE ALPHABETICALLY LEVEL:    Elementary    Advanced    Both INCLUDE TOPICS:    Basic Math    Algebra    Analysis    Biography    Calculus    Comp Sci    Discrete    Economics    Foundations    Geometry    Graph Thry    History    Number Thry    Phys Sci    Statistics    Topology    Trigonometry matrix – norm matrix   A rectangular array of, usually, real or complex numbers, organized into rows and columns. When specifying the size of a matrix, the number of rows is stated first. For example, here is a 2 by 4 real matrix:The numbers in a matrix are called entries, and are specified by the row and then column in which they appear. In the example above, for instance, A1,2 is the entry in the first row and second column, i.e. 4.98. Two matrices of the same size (with the same number of rows and columns) can be added componentwise, that is (A + B)i, j = Ai, j + Bi, j. Matrix multiplication is a little more complicated. A matrix M can be multiplied on the right by another matrix T only if T has the same number of rows as M has columns, and the result will have as many rows as M and as many columns as T. The entry of M T appearing in row i and column j is the sum of the pairwise products of the entries in row i of M and column j of T. In other words, if M is an n by m matrix, T must be an m by l matrix, andNotice that this operation is not, in general, commutative. A matrix that has the same number of rows and columns is called a square matrix, and these are particularly interesting as they can be added and multiplied, and the results will have the same dimensions. The most standard use of matrices is to represent linear operators, but they have a wide variety of other uses, and are interesting to study in their own right. Matrices can have a large number of different types of entries, including various kinds of numbers, elements of abstract fields and other algebraic structures, functions, and so forth. maximal filter   See filter. measurable cardinal   If there exists a non-principal k-complete ultrafilter on a set of size k, then k is called a measurable cardinal. meet   A binary operation whose value on two elements a and b of a lattice is the greatest lower bound of a and b, denoted a b.Cf. join. meet-morphism   A function f on a lattice L is called a meet-morphism if for every a and b in L we have f(a b) = f(a) f(b). If f has an inverse that is also a meet-morphism, then f is called a meet-isomorphism. A meet-isomorphism from a lattice to itself is called a meet-automorphism.Cf. meet, join-morphism. module   A generalization of the notion of vector space. Specifically, if M is an Abelian group under addition, and R is a ring such that rm is in M whenever m is an element of M and r is an element of R, then M is called a left R-module (a right R-module is defined analogously), providedr(m + n) = rm + rn,(r + s)m = rm + sm, andr(sm) = (rs)mfor all r, s in R and m, n in M. A module is cyclic if there is a generating element m of M such that every element of M is of the form rm for some r in R. A module is finitely generated if there are elements m1, m2, ..., mk in M such that every element of M is of the form r1m1 + r2m2 + ... + rkmk for some r1, r2, ..., rk in R. monoid   See group. monomorphism   A morphism f from X to Y is called a monomorphism when it is injective, that is, when to each element y of Y there corresponds at most one x in X such that f(x) = y.Cf. epimorphism. monotone function   Also called monotonic function. See order-preserving function. morphism   A function from one set to another is called a morphism if it preserves some designated structural properties or operations on the domain set. Typically, the word morphism is not used by itself, but in combination with a prefix that indicates whether it is injective, surjective, etc.Cf. automorphism, epimorphism, homeomorphsim, homomorphism, isomorphism, monomorphsim. multiplication   A binary operation on numbers or quantities resulting in a product, usually but not always amounting to repeated addition. On the natural numbers multiplication is defined recursively by the Peano axioms, such that the product of two numbers n and m, denoted by n × m, is found by adding up m copies of n (or n copies of m).Multiplication of most kinds of numbers is associative and commutative, but these properties sometimes fail, for example in the case of matrix multiplication.When a product of more than two numbers or quantities is taken, the general product may be denoted by the capital Greek letter Pi, i.e., Pai denotes the product a1 × a2 × . . . × an. multiply   To find the product of two numbers or quantities by multiplication. mutually prime   Two integers are mutually prime if they have no common factors larger than 1 or -1. nth-term test   A test for the divergence of a series. See the related article for a complete description. Related article: Series natural base   See Euler number. natural logarithm   A logarithm with base e, the Euler number. Often written “ln” rather than “log” to distinguish it from logarithms using other bases. natural number   An element of the set N = {1, 2, 3, ...} consisting of all the “counting numbers.” When the number 0 is included, this set is sometimes called the whole numbers. In set theory, the natural numbers (incuding 0) are identified with the set w of finite ordinals. The natural numbers are a well-founded linear order with no largest member, and are countably infinite.Cf. Peano axioms, rational number, real number. Related MiniText: Number -- What Is How Many? negation   If j is a statement, sentence, or formula of logic, then the negation of j, denoted by j, is that formula which is true whenever j is false, and false whenever j is true. negative   The negative of a number or quantity x is the number, denoted -x, which when added to x yields 0. That is, the negative of a number is its additive inverse. non-denumerable   norm   Analysis: A non-negative real-valued function “|| x ||” defined on a vector space, satisfying|| –x || = || x ||,|| cx || = || c || × || x || for all scalars c, and|| x + y || <= || x || + || y || (triangle inequality)Statistics: Another term for the mode of a frequency distribution. matrix – norm
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