BROWSE ALPHABETICALLY LEVEL:    Elementary    Advanced    Both INCLUDE TOPICS:    Basic Math    Algebra    Analysis    Biography    Calculus    Comp Sci    Discrete    Economics    Foundations    Geometry    Graph Thry    History    Number Thry    Phys Sci    Statistics    Topology    Trigonometry multiplication – ordinal multiplication   A binary operation on numbers or quantities resulting in a product, usually but not always amounting to repeated addition. On the natural numbers multiplication is defined recursively by the Peano axioms, such that the product of two numbers n and m, denoted by n × m, is found by adding up m copies of n (or n copies of m).Multiplication of most kinds of numbers is associative and commutative, but these properties sometimes fail, for example in the case of matrix multiplication.When a product of more than two numbers or quantities is taken, the general product may be denoted by the capital Greek letter Pi, i.e., Pai denotes the product a1 × a2 × . . . × an. multiply   To find the product of two numbers or quantities by multiplication. mutually prime   Two integers are mutually prime if they have no common factors larger than 1 or -1. nth-term test   A test for the divergence of a series. See the related article for a complete description. Related article: Series natural base   See Euler number. natural logarithm   A logarithm with base e, the Euler number. Often written “ln” rather than “log” to distinguish it from logarithms using other bases. natural number   An element of the set N = {1, 2, 3, ...} consisting of all the “counting numbers.” When the number 0 is included, this set is sometimes called the whole numbers. In set theory, the natural numbers (incuding 0) are identified with the set w of finite ordinals. The natural numbers are a well-founded linear order with no largest member, and are countably infinite.Cf. Peano axioms, rational number, real number. Related MiniText: Number -- What Is How Many? negation   If j is a statement, sentence, or formula of logic, then the negation of j, denoted by j, is that formula which is true whenever j is false, and false whenever j is true. negative   The negative of a number or quantity x is the number, denoted -x, which when added to x yields 0. That is, the negative of a number is its additive inverse. normal   A line intersecting a curve (or surface) perpendicular to the tangent line (or tangent plane) at the point of intersection. The normal to a surface expressed as a function of several variables xi is given by the gradient. number   There is no precise mathematical definition of the word “number.” There are however precise definitions of the terms “natural number,” “rational number,” “real number,” “complex number,” and other less commonly used kinds of number. When a mathematician speaks about numbers she usually has one of these cases in mind and she should, at the outset, make it clear to which type of number she is referring. The naive, inborn concept of number that is shared to some degree by all humans is a matter for philosophical rather than strictly mathematical inquiry, and it may be noted that there has historically been strong opposition to the introduction of new generalizations of established concepts of number. numeral   Graphical symbol representing a number. obtuse   An angle is called obtuse if it is greater than a right angle, that is, if its measure is greater than 90° (p/2 radians). A triangle is called obtuse if one of its angles is obtuse.Cf. acute. octahedron   A polyhedron having eight faces.The faces of a regular octahedron are congruent, equilateral triangles.Cf. Platonic solid, polyhedron. odd function   A real-valued function y = f(x) is odd if f(–x) = –f(x) for all x in the domain of f. The graphs of odd functions in the Cartesian plane are symmetric with respect to the origin.Cf. even function. open interval   An interval of the real number line (or any other totally ordered set) which does not include its endpoints. An interval containing only one of its endpoints is called half-open.Cf. closed interval. ordered pair   An ordered tuple (a,b), the first element of which is called the abscissa, and the second element the ordinate, and for which (a,b) = (b,a) if and only if a = b. Functions, graphs of functions, and binary relations are represented as sets of ordered pairs. In standard set theory, the ordered pair (a,b) is defined to be the set { {a}, {a,b} }.Cf. flat pair. order of operations   As a matter of convention, in any given expression involving arithmetic and/or algebraic operations, operations within parentheses (or other grouping symbols) are evaluated first. Within this constraint, exponentiation precedes multiplication and division, and the latter precede addition and subtraction. Within these constraints, operations are evaluated from left to right. order-preserving function   A function f is called order-preserving if it preserves the order of its domain elements, that is, if whenever x and y are elements of its domain such that x y then f(x) f(y). Also called isotone or inctreasing. If f reverses the order of its domain elements, then it is called antitone or decreasing. In either case f is called monotone or monotonic. If whenever x < y we have f(x) < f(y), then f is called strictly increasing (resp. decreasing). order relation   A relation R on a set S is an order relation exactly if it is reflexive, transitive and antisymmetric. Order relations are usually denoted by “ < ” or “ ”.Cf. partial order, total order ordinal   The class of ordinals is defined by:0 is an ordinal;if a is an ordinal, then a + 1 = a union {a}) is an ordinal;if A is a collection of ordinals, then union(A) is an ordinal;nothing else is an ordinal.The class of ordinals is transitive, and is a well-founded, linear ordering. An ordinal of the form a + 1 is called a successor ordinal, and is otherwise called a limit ordinal.Cf. Von Neumann Heirarchy. multiplication – ordinal
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