BROWSE ALPHABETICALLY LEVEL:    Elementary    Advanced    Both INCLUDE TOPICS:    Basic Math    Algebra    Analysis    Biography    Calculus    Comp Sci    Discrete    Economics    Foundations    Geometry    Graph Thry    History    Number Thry    Phys Sci    Statistics    Topology    Trigonometry polynomial – quantifier polynomial   General: A function of the formp(x) = a0 + a1x + a2x2 + ... + anxn where the ai (called coefficients) are real numbers or complex numbers, and the exponents are all natural numbers. The highest exponent is called the degree of the polynomial, and the coefficient an on the highest degree term is called the leading coefficient. Polynomials of degree two are called quadratic polynomials, of degree 3 cubic, of degree 4 quartic, and those of degree 5 are called quintic.More generally, a polynomial may be in several variables x1, ... ,xk, and may be thought of as a sum of the formwhere all but finitely many of the ai are 0. In this case, the degree of the polynomial is the highest sum of exponents appearing in any term. For example, 2x4 and 3xy2z are both fourth-degree terms.Abstract Algebra (formal polynomial): A formal sum of the form The ai are called coefficients, and are elements of some commutative ring R. p is said to be a polynomial over R, or with coefficients in R. The x is just a formal symbol. Only finitely many of the ai can be non-zero, and if an is the last non-zero coefficient, n is called the degree of p.Polynomials can be added and multiplied in the natural way, by using the cummutative and distributive laws of addition and multiplication in R. Explicitly, if p and q are polynomials over the same ring, and the ai and bi are the coefficients of p and q, respectively, then and These operations allow us to define R[x], the polynomial ring over R.The Substitution Principle allows us evaluate a polynomial p on any element of R, and we can use this to define a function corresponding to p, thereby capturing the informal notion of a polynomial.Cf. Diophantine equation, quadratic formula. polynomial ring   The ring, denoted by R[x], of all formal polynomials over a given commutative ring R. If we choose to consider multivariate polynomials, we can define the ring R[x1, x2, ... xn] in an analagous manner. A worthwhile observation, which is a corollary of the Substitution Principle, is that R[x1, x2, ... xn] is isomorphic to R[x1][x2] ... [xn]. poset   A partially ordered set, i.e., a set with a partial order defined on it. postulate   A statement in a mathematical theory that is assumed without proof. Essentially synonymous with “axiom.” potential infinite   A distinction made by Aristotle: a set is potentially infinite if it cannot be finitely completed, e.g., our naive or given conception of the natural numbers. Aristotle admitted potentially infinite sets, but denied the logical possiblity of the actual infinite, that is, infinite totalities considered as completed entities. Related MiniText: Infinity -- You Can't Get There From Here... power series   An infinite series of the formSee the related article for a complete description. Related article: Series power set   Given a set X, the power set of X, denoted P(X), is the collection of all subsets of X. If X is a finite set with n elements, then P(X) is a finite set with 2n elements.Cf. power set axiom. power set axiom   An axiom of set theory which states that, for any given set X, the power set, i.e., the collection of all subsets of X, exists and is a set. predecessor   In a structure with an order relation defined upon it, the predecessor of an element b is the greatest element less than b.Cf. successor predicate calculus   A system of symbolic logic which augments the propositional calculus with quantification over variables. The two forms of quantification are existential and universal, and are denoted byrespectively. This permits the construction of sentences such aswhich could be read, “There exists an x such that for all y, x times y is equal to y.” (Such a sentence would be true in arithmetic or group theory, for instance.) When quantification is permitted only over variables, the logic is first-order. If quantification is permitted over classes of variables or over predicates, the logic is second-order. prime number   Any natural number greater than 1 that is evenly divisible only by itself and 1. There are infinitely many prime numbers. The number of primes less than a given number n is denoted p(n), and approaches the value n/lnn for sufficiently large n. Related article: Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic product   The result of applying a multiplication operation to two or more numbers or quantities. proper class   A collection of elements that is not a set. For example, the collection of all sets must be thought of as a proper class in order to avoid the Russell paradox. proper factor   See factor. propositional calculus   The formal system of symbolic logic in which sentences are treated as objects related by the logical connectives:The last two symbols are called the conditional and the biconditional respectively, but they are not essential; indeed all the connectives are fully expressible by the use of the two connectives for “or” and “not.” For example, “p implies q” may be equivalently expressed as “not p or q.” In the notation of propositional calculus, this equivalence may be written,Cf. predicate calculus. p-series   An infinite series of the formwith p a positive real number. See the related article for details. Related article: Series Pythagorean theorem   In Euclidean geometry, the sum of the areas of the squares on the legs of any right triangle is equal to the area of the square on the hypotenuse. This is arguably the most important theorem of classical mathematics, and perhaps of all time. Pythagorean triple   An ordered triple (a,b,c) of natural numbers satisfying a2 + b2 = c2. The triples (3,4,5) and (5,12,13) are the first of infinitely many examples. quadratic formula   Given a quadratic function, i.e., a polynomial function of second degree y = ax 2 + bx + c, the zeros of the function are given byThe expression under the radical is called the determinant. If the determinant is positive, both solutions are real; if negative, both solutions are complex; and if zero, there is a single solution of multiplicity two. quadrilateral   A closed, plane figure with four straight sides.Cf. polygon. quantifier polynomial – quantifier
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