BROWSE ALPHABETICALLY LEVEL:    Elementary    Advanced    Both INCLUDE TOPICS:    Basic Math    Algebra    Analysis    Biography    Calculus    Comp Sci    Discrete    Economics    Foundations    Geometry    Graph Thry    History    Number Thry    Phys Sci    Statistics    Topology    Trigonometry Riemann sum – transcendental function Riemann sum   Let f be a real-valued function defined on the closed interval [a, b], and let D be a partition of [a, b], i.e., a = x0 < x1 < ... < xn = b, and where Dxi is the width of the i th subinterval. If c i is any point in the i th subinterval, then the sumis called the Riemann sum of f for the partition D. root test   A test for the convergence of a series. See the related article for a complete description. Related article: Series scalar   A quantity having only magnitude, not direction (typically an element of a field, such as the real numbers or complex numbers).Cf. vector. scalar product   The scalar product, also called dot product, of two vectors is the sum of the products of the corresponding components of the two vectors. I.e., given two vectors x = (x1, x2, ..., xn) and y = (y1, y2, ..., yn), their scalar product is the scalar x1y1 + x2y2 + ... + xnyn.Cf. vector product. semi-finite measure   See measure. sequence   A sequence is a set (of numbers, or sets, or functions, etc.) indexed by the natural numbers. Sequences may be infinite, and may be regarded as a function with domain the set of natural numbers and range the set of objects in the sequence.An infinite sequence of numbers is said to converge to a number L provided that, given any positive e, we may find a natural number N such that for all terms of the sequence after the N th one, their difference from L is less than e. Naively, the terms of the sequence eventually become “arbitrarily close” to L. Such a sequence is called convergent, and the number L is called the limit of the sequence, or the limit point, or sometimes the accumulation point of the sequence.Alternatively, a cluster point or accumulation point P of a sequence may be defined as a point with the property that infinitely many terms of the sequence lie in any neighborhood of P. A sequence may have more than one such cluster point (even infinitely many).A sequence is called Cauchy if, for every e greater than zero, we may find a natural number N so that the difference between any two terms following the N th term is smaller than e. Every convergent sequence is Cauchy; the converse is true in complete spaces.Cf. series. Related article: Limits series    ARTICLE   A series is an infinite sum, where the nth summand is the nth term of a sequence. A series is usually denoted using “sigma notation,” i.e.,The index n may begin with 0, 1, or k for any natural number k, as a matter of convenience. The nth partial sum Sn of a series is the (finite) sum of the first n terms of the series. A series is said to converge if and only if its sequence of partial sums {S 1, S 2, . . . , Sn, . . . } is a convergent sequence. There are several important types of series and several tests for the convergence of a series. Additionally, most useful functions have Taylor series representations, which makes them very important in the study of differential equations. See the article for a complete description. signed measure   Given a set X together with a s-algebra of sets M defined on it, a signed measure on (X, M) is an extended real-valued function m with domain M satisfying: The signed measure of the empty set is zero.The signed measure m assumes at most one of the values +/- infinity.(Countable additivity) Given a countable sequence of disjoint sets in M, the signed measure of the union of the sequence is equal to the sum of the signed measures of the sets in the sequence, where this sum converges absolutely if the signed measure of the union is finite. Technically speaking, every measure is a signed measure; ordinary (i.e., nowhere negative) measures are sometimes called positive measures. slope   A line in the Cartesian plane which passes through two points (x 1, y 1) and (x 2, y 2) has a slope m given byThe slope may easily be remembered as “rise over run.” It is evident that the slope of a horizontal line is 0, and the slope of a vertical line is undefined.Cf. linear function. sphere   A closed surface, all points of which are equidistant from a given point, called the center. In 3-dimensional Euclidean space, the equation of a sphere of radius r and center (h, j, k) isThe term sphere may also refer to the solid bounded by this surface, and the interior is then called the open sphere of radius r.More generally, a sphere may be defined as the set of points in n-dimensional space (or any metric space) equidistant from a given point. The unit sphere in n-dimensional space is typically denoted S n - 1. Thus, the unit sphere in ordinary 3-space is denoted S2, and the unit circle in the plane is denoted S1. square matrix   A matrix that has the same number of rows as columns. Stone-Weierstrass Theorem   If X is a compact space and C(X) denotes the space of all continuous functions on X, and A is an algebra of functions in C(X) which separates the points of C(X) and which contains a constant function f not identically zero, then A is dense in C(X). sup   Abbreviation of supremum. supremum   The supremum of any subset of a linearly ordered set is the least upper bound of the subset. In particular, the supremum of any set of numbers is the smallest number in the set which is greater than or equal to every number in the set. In a complete linear order the supremum of any bounded set always exists.Cf. infimum, least upper bound axiom. surjection   A surjective function, i.e., a function that maps at least one element of its domain to each element of its range.Cf. injection, bijection. surjective   A function f from a set X to a set Y is surjective, also called “onto,” if to each element y of Y there is an element x of X such that f maps x to y, i.e., f (x)=y. Compare: injective, bijective. Taylor series   Given a function having derivatives of all orders, the Taylor series of the function is given bywhere f (k)(a) is the kth derivative of f at a. A function is equal to its Taylor series if and only if its error term Rn can be made arbitrarily small, whereIt can be shown thatfor some c between a and x. totally bounded   Given a metric space X, a subset E of X is called totally bounded if for every e greater than zero there is a finite covering of E by open spheres in X whose radius is less than e.Cf. bounded. totally ordered set   A set with a total order defined on it. total variation   (For total variation of a signed measure, see the Jordan Decomposition Theorem.) If f is a function on the real numbers with range in the complex numbers, then the function Tf given byis called the total variation function of f, where here the supremum is being taken over all finite partitions of the real line up to x. If the limit of this function as x goes to infinity is finite, then f is said to be of bounded variation. The space of all such functions is usually denoted by BV. Functions which are increasing and bounded are in BV, and differentiable functions whose derivative is bounded are in BV. transcendental function   A function which is not an algebraic function, i.e., a function whose action on its argument(s) cannot be represented by the arithmetic and algebraic operations: addition and subtraction, multiplication and division, raising to a power, or extraction of roots. The exponential function, the logarithmic function, and the trigonometric functions are examples of transcendental functions. Riemann sum – transcendental function
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