BROWSE ALPHABETICALLY LEVEL:    Elementary    Advanced    Both INCLUDE TOPICS:    Basic Math    Algebra    Analysis    Biography    Calculus    Comp Sci    Discrete    Economics    Foundations    Geometry    Graph Thry    History    Number Thry    Phys Sci    Statistics    Topology    Trigonometry Russell Paradox – set theory Russell Paradox   (Bertrand Russell, 1901) A paradox of set theory which necessitated a more careful axiomatization of set theory in the 1920’s and 1930’s: Naively, some sets are members of themselves and some are not. For instance, the set of all apples is not itself an apple, but the set of all sets does seem to be a set. So consider the set X of all sets that are not members of themselves. We may ask, is X a member of itself? If it is then it cannot be, because of the way in which X itself was defined, but if it isn’t then it must be, by the same reasoning. Contradiction. The Russell paradox is resolved in modern set theory by a foundation axiom or axiom of regularity, and by limiting the “size” of objects we call sets. For example, the “set of all sets” is considered not to be a set but a proper class. scalar   A quantity having only magnitude, not direction (typically an element of a field, such as the real numbers or complex numbers).Cf. vector. scalar product   The scalar product, also called dot product, of two vectors is the sum of the products of the corresponding components of the two vectors. I.e., given two vectors x = (x1, x2, ..., xn) and y = (y1, y2, ..., yn), their scalar product is the scalar x1y1 + x2y2 + ... + xnyn.Cf. vector product. scalene   A triangle is called scalene if all of its sides are unequal (equivalently, if all of its angles are unequal). Schroeder-Bernstein Theorem   If there exists an injection from a set X into a set Y, and also an injection from Y into X, then there exists a bijection from X to Y, and hence X and Y have the same cardinality. scientific notation   A number is written in scientific notation when it is written as the product of a real number between 1 and 10 and a power of 10. E.g., 320 is written in scientific notation as 3.2 × 102. On some calculators and in some textbooks, this may be written as 3.2E2. Scientific notation is a convenient way to represent very large and very small numbers. sec   See secant. secant   Geometry: A line connecting two points on a curve.Trigonometry: A periodic trigonometric function defined on angles, usually abbreviated “sec.” It is the multiplicative inverse of the cosine function.See the related article for a complete exposition. Related article: Trig Functions and Identities semi-finite measure   See measure. semigroup   See group. semi-lattice   A set with a single binary operation that is idempotent, commutative, and associative.Cf. lattice. sentential calculus   separable   A topological space is separable if it has a countable base. sequence   A sequence is a set (of numbers, or sets, or functions, etc.) indexed by the natural numbers. Sequences may be infinite, and may be regarded as a function with domain the set of natural numbers and range the set of objects in the sequence.An infinite sequence of numbers is said to converge to a number L provided that, given any positive e, we may find a natural number N such that for all terms of the sequence after the N th one, their difference from L is less than e. Naively, the terms of the sequence eventually become “arbitrarily close” to L. Such a sequence is called convergent, and the number L is called the limit of the sequence, or the limit point, or sometimes the accumulation point of the sequence.Alternatively, a cluster point or accumulation point P of a sequence may be defined as a point with the property that infinitely many terms of the sequence lie in any neighborhood of P. A sequence may have more than one such cluster point (even infinitely many).A sequence is called Cauchy if, for every e greater than zero, we may find a natural number N so that the difference between any two terms following the N th term is smaller than e. Every convergent sequence is Cauchy; the converse is true in complete spaces.Cf. series. Related article: Limits series    ARTICLE   A series is an infinite sum, where the nth summand is the nth term of a sequence. A series is usually denoted using “sigma notation,” i.e.,The index n may begin with 0, 1, or k for any natural number k, as a matter of convenience. The nth partial sum Sn of a series is the (finite) sum of the first n terms of the series. A series is said to converge if and only if its sequence of partial sums {S 1, S 2, . . . , Sn, . . . } is a convergent sequence. There are several important types of series and several tests for the convergence of a series. Additionally, most useful functions have Taylor series representations, which makes them very important in the study of differential equations. See the article for a complete description. set   Naively, any well-defined collection considered as a single, abstract object. By “well-defined” is meant that it is always possible to determine for a given set when something is an element of the set and when not. In formal set theory, the term “set” is not defined, but is a primitive term whose meaning is informed purely by the axioms in which it appears.Cf. ZF, ZFC. set algebra   See algebra of sets. set difference   The set difference of two sets A and B, denoted A - B or A \ B, is the set of elements that is contained in A but not in B. This is equivalent to the intersection between A and the complement of B. set function   A function whose domain of definition is a collection of sets. set ring   See ring of sets. set theory   Naive set theory: The study of sets (i.e., well-defined collections of objects) which have a binary extensional relation (set membership) defined on them.Abstract set theory: As naive set theory, but with all sets built using only elements which are themselves sets (beginning with the empty set, which has no members).Formal set theory: Any of several axiom systems of abstract set theory in the language of first-order logic, such as Zermelo Fraenkel set theory, Gödel-Bernays set theory, Quine’s New Foundations, etc. Russell Paradox – set theory
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